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any of the Greeks who discharged certain military and police duties under Ottoman authority in districts known as armatoliks. This police organization had its origins in Byzantine times, when armatolismos was a form of feudalism under which military and police duties were rendered in return for a title to land. When the Ottoman Turks conquered Greece in the 15th century, they made treaties with the local armatoles, allowing them to continue in their police functions. Other Greeks, taking to the mountains, became unofficial, self-appointed armatoles and were known as klephts (from the Greek kleptes, "brigand"). These klephts might sometimes be recognized by the Turkish authorities as armatoles, while the armatoles who were out of favour continued as klephts. The two terms came to be used indiscriminately. Both armatoles and klephts played important roles in the War of Greek Independence (1821-32).