an expert in astronomy; a scientific observer of the celestial bodies.

1325–75; Middle English; see astronomy, -er1 Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
astronomer (əˈstrɒnəmə)
a scientist who studies astronomy

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin & History

mid-14c., from astronomy (q.v.), replacing Fr. import astronomyen (c.1300), which, had it survived, probably would have yielded *astronomian. Still in Shakespeare used in places where we would write astrologer.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
For years, astronomers tried to define a planet by shape, orbit around a star
  and its influence on other bodies.
Astronomers say it probably wasn't deadly because the comet was larger than
  they thought.
Astronomers announced yesterday that they had found the remains of an ancient
  cosmic car wreck.
But astronomers and chemists have been equally despised.
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