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Batalha

town, west-central Portugal, just south of Leiria city. The town is dominated by the great Dominican abbey of Santa Maria da Vitoria, also known simply as Batalha ("Battle"). In the Battle of Aljubarrota, fought on a plain 9 miles (14 km) southwest of the town, John I of Portugal defeated John I of Castile in 1385 and secured the independence of his kingdom. The abbey was probably founded in 1388 to commemorate the victory. The Founder's Chapel contains the tomb of the victor, John I, and Philippa of Lancaster, his English queen, as well as the tomb of Henry the Navigator, their son. Other monarchs are buried in the royal mausoleum. Only the royal cloister, church, and Founder's Chapel were included in the original design by Afonso Domingues, a native architect. The Capelas Imperfeitas (Unfinished Chapels) are among the best examples of Manueline architecture. This style of architecture, which was named for the monarch Manuel (reigned 1495-1521) and which flourished in the 16th century, employed decorative stonework, using nautical, angelic, and military motifs. The catastrophic earthquake of 1755 damaged the abbey, and the French sacked it in 1810. Secularized in 1834, it was declared a national monument in 1840 and was gradually restored. Pop. (2001) 7,519.

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Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
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