largest of an island group in northeastern Lake Michigan, U.S., about 35 miles (55 km) north-northwest of the resort city of Charlevoix, Mich. It extends about 13 miles (21 km) in length and 2 to 7 miles (3 to 11 km) in width and is administered as part of Charlevoix county. French explorers called it Ile du Castor (for the castors [beavers] found there), and a French settlement (abandoned 1603) was one of the earliest in the area. In 1847 the religious leader James Jesse Strang took over the island for his Mormon colony, was crowned "king," established his "capital" at St. James, and exercised spiritual and temporal authority. Strang's tyrannical rule aroused resentment among both his followers and people on the mainland, which led to his assassination in 1856 and the disintegration of his "kingdom." His followers were driven off the island the next year. Irish fishermen then occupied Beaver Island, exploiting the excellent freshwater fishing grounds nearby. The economy now relies almost entirely on tourism; the island is popular with anglers, hunters, and boaters. St. James, the only village, has air and ferryboat connections with Charlevoix. Some buildings dating from the Mormon period still stand in the town. About one-third of Beaver Island, together with other nearby islands, is designated as a state wildlife research area. Cars are allowed on the island, but outside of St. James few roads are paved. Pop. (2000) St. James township, 307; Peaine township, 244; (2005 est.) St. James township, 343; Peaine township, 303.
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