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in Roman Catholicism, a ceremony formerly used in pronouncing the "major excommunication" or "anathema" (see excommunication). Its origins are not clear, but it dates back certainly to the late 9th century. The bell represented the public character of the act, the book the authority of the words spoken by the presiding bishop. The candle was believed to symbolize the possibility that the ban might be lifted by the repentance and amendment of its victim. The ceremony was performed in some conspicuous place, and, upon its termination, letters were written to bishops of other sees to report the fact. When the assemblage had been convoked, a bishop appeared with 12 priests, and all 13 held lighted candles. The bishop, wearing violet vestments, then recited the formula, ending thus: "We separate him, together with his accomplices and abettors, from the precious body and blood of the Lord and from the society of all Christians; we exclude him from our holy mother the church in heaven and on earth; we declare him excommunicate and anathema; we judge him damned, with the devil and his angels and all the reprobate, to eternal fire until he shall recover himself from the toils of the devil and return to amendment and to penitence." Those present answered, "So be it!" Then the bishop and the 12 priests extinguished their candles by dashing them to the ground, and (as a general rule) the ceremony then ended.