bergen op zoom
gemeente (municipality), southwestern Netherlands, on the small Zoom River, near its canal junction with the East Scheldt (Oosterschelde) Channel. It was taken by the Vikings in 880. Bergen op Zoom (meaning "hills on the Zoom," or perhaps "on the border [of the marshes]") became a lordship in 1287 by separation from Breda and was a hereditary fief of the duchy of Brabant. It prospered in the 15th century as a trade centre, its fairs being visited by English merchants who enjoyed special privileges. In 1533 it was raised to a margravate by Charles V. It resisted Spanish rule, was fortified, and successfully resisted several Spanish assaults between 1581 and 1622. Taken by the French (1747) during the War of the Austrian Succession and again in 1795, it was held against the English until the fall of Napoleon in 1814. The fortifications were dismantled in 1867, and the town was occupied by the Germans during World War II.
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