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city, Chhattisgarh state, central India, lying just west of the Arpa River. Bilaspur was the capital of a Gond kingdom until captured by the Marathas in the 18th century. Just north lies Ratanpur, an ancient Hindu capital of the Haihaya dynasty of Chhattisgarh; its ruins date from the 8th century AD. A major rail junction with extensive workshops, Bilaspur has agricultural trade and is a centre of rice and flour milling, sawmilling, and the manufacture of shellac. Bilaspur was constituted a municipality in 1867 and has a musical academy and several colleges affiliated with Ravishankar University. Pop. (1991) city, 179,833; urban agglomeration, 229,615.