bivouac

[biv-oo-ak, biv-wak]
noun
1.
a military encampment made with tents or improvised shelters, usually without shelter or protection from enemy fire.
2.
the place used for such an encampment.
verb (used without object), bivouacked, bivouacking.
3.
to rest or assemble in such an area; encamp.

Origin:
1700–10; < French < Swiss German bīwacht auxiliary patrol, equivalent to bī- by- + wacht patrol, watch

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World English Dictionary
bivouac (ˈbɪvʊˌæk, ˈbɪvwæk)
 
n
1.  a temporary encampment with few facilities, as used by soldiers, mountaineers, etc
 
vb , -acs, -acking, -acked
2.  (intr) to make such an encampment
 
[C18: from French bivuac, probably from Swiss German Beiwacht, literally: by + watch]

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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

bivouac
1702, from Fr. bivouac, ultimately from Swiss/Alsatian biwacht "night guard," from bei- "double, additional" + wacht "guard." Original meaning was an army that stayed up on night watch; sense of "outdoor camp" is 1853. Not a common word in English before the Napoleonic Wars. Italian bivacco is from French.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
You've never lived in a crowded barracks, cramped ship or bivouacked in the
  field or experienced the day-to-day military.
It led to the encampment area where troops bivouacked and lived.
The troops bivouacked in a field, intending to go on to the vicinity of the
  attacks next day.
The soldiers immediately bivouacked in place, throwing up rock forts as
  shelters.
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