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variety of shale that contains abundant organic matter, pyrite, and sometimes carbonate nodules or layers and, in some locations, concentrations of copper, nickel, uranium, and vanadium. Fossils are rare in the shale and either are replaced by pyrite or are preserved as a film of graphite. Black shales occur in thin beds in many areas at various depths. They were deposited under anaerobic conditions, but the exact mode of origin is debated. Some geologists hold that the conditions were produced at depth by a stable stratification of lighter, fresher water overlying and sealing off from the atmosphere a more saline, stagnant layer. Others hold that the stagnant conditions were produced in shallow seas or in lagoons.