((1685), in English history, the trials conducted in the west of England by the chief justice, George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys of Wem, and four other judges after the abortive rebellion (June 1685) of the Duke of Monmouth, illegitimate son of King Charles II, against his Roman Catholic uncle King James II. About 320 persons were hanged and more than 800 transported to Barbados; hundreds more were fined, flogged, or imprisoned. Although modern research has acquitted Jeffreys, in certain cases, of any technical irregularity, the trials were conducted with a ferocity of manner that has made his name notorious.
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