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"One popular song at least has left its permanent effect on the game of golf. That song is 'The Bogey Man.' In 1890 Dr. Thos. Browne, R.N., the hon. secretary of the Great Yarmouth Club, was playing against a Major Wellman, the match being against the 'ground score,' which was the name given to the scratch value of each hole. The system of playing against the 'ground score' was new to Major Wellman, and he exclaimed, thinking of the song of the moment, that his mysterious and well-nigh invincible opponent was a regular 'bogey-man.' The name 'caught on' at Great Yarmouth, and to-day 'Bogey' is one of the most feared opponents on all the courses that acknowledge him." [1908, cited in OED]As a verb, attested by 1948.
[all senses fr bogy or bogey, ''evil spirit, hobgoblin,'' the boogy or boogy-man invoked to frighten children; the golf sense originated in 1890 when Dr Thomas Browne, a naval surgeon, compared his opponent, the ''ground score,'' to the ''Bogey Man'' of a popular song, at any rate, so it is said]