biographer who cultivated "psychography," a new type of biographical writing that sought to portray the inner life of the subject by a skillful selection of important and interesting traits. Lee the American (1912) was the first of a series of successful "psychographs," which included Portraits of Women (1916) and Damaged Souls (1923). A semi- invalid almost all of his life, he spent many years unsuccessfully attempting to establish himself as a novelist, poet, or playwright before finding his metier in biography. Over a period of 20 years he produced 114 biographies, although his illness often prevented him from working more than a few minutes a day. He also wrote his own "spiritual autobiography," Life and I (1928).
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