any of about 65 species of Encephalartos, cycads (family Zamiaceae) native to Africa. The name is derived from a breadlike foodstuff prepared from the mealy, starchy centre of the stem and perhaps also from the seeds, which have fleshy coverings. Some species reach nearly 20 feet (6 metres) in height and have very stiff, spreading pinnate leaves 3 to 4 feet long and recurving at the tip. Several species of Encephalartos form handsome greenhouse and conservatory plants. This has led to their being overly collected from the wild, with the result that some species are critically endangered
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