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town, capital of Bundesland (federal state) Vorarlberg, western Austria, on the eastern shore of Lake Constance (Bodensee). The town lies at the foot of the Pfander Mountain (3,487 feet [1,063 metres]; ascended by suspension railway). Inhabited in prehistoric times, it was later the site of a Celtic settlement and then of a Roman camp (Brigantium). Settled by the Alemanni, a Germanic people, in the 6th century, it was ruled by the counts of Bregenz until 1206, when it passed to the counts of Montfort. It had been chartered in 1200 and was sold in 1451 and 1523 to the Habsburgs, who made it one of their principal seats after 1726. The state museum has Celtic and Roman collections, and remains of the 13th-century town walls still stand. Other notable historical landmarks include the medieval Martins-Turm with St. Martin's Chapel (1362-66), the Gothic parish church (1097; most recent reconstruction 1738), the Gothic Seekapelle (altered 1696-98), and the old town hall (1511). Bregenz is a tourist centre with winter and summer sports facilities and the site of a summer arts festival by the lake, with a special stage measuring 361 by 984 feet (110 by 300 metres) and a dais for 6,300 spectators. Bregenz manufactures textiles, electrical goods, chemicals, and machinery and is served by a large hydropower plant nearby. It also is a regional centre for banking, insurance, and retail trade. Pop. (2006) 27,241.
Bundesland (federal state), far western Austria. It is bounded on the north by Bavaria (Germany) and Lake Constance (Bodensee), on the west by Switzerland (across the Rhine River) and Liechtenstein, on the south by Switzerland, and on the east (over the Arlberg Pass) by Tirol. With an area of 1,004 square miles (2,601 square km), the state is drained by the Ill River and the Bregenzer River; the terrain is level south of Lake Constance and in the Rhine and Ill valleys, hilly in the forested Bregenzer Forest (see Bregenzerwald; northeast), and mountainous in the Silvretta Alps (south), whose highest peak is Mount Buin (10,866 feet [3,312 metres]).