members of the class Phaeophyceae (division Chromophyta), comprising about 1,500 species, common in cold waters along continental coasts. Freshwater species are rare. Species colour varies from dark brown to olive green, depending upon the proportion of brown pigment (fucoxanthin) to green pigment (chlorophyll). Some brown seaweeds have gas-filled bladders (pneumatocysts), which keep photosynthetic parts of the algal thallus floating on or near the surface of the water. Brown algae vary in form and size from small filamentous epiphytes (Ectocarpus) to complex giant kelps that range in size from 1 metre to more than 100 metres (3.3 to 330 feet; Laminaria, Macrocystis, Nerocystis). Rockweed, another type of brown algae, is found attached to rocky coasts in temperate zones (Fucus, Ascophyllum) or floating freely (Sargassum). Brown algae multiply by asexual and sexual reproduction; both the motile zoospores and gametes have two unequal flagella. Once a major source of iodine and potash, brown algae are still an important source of algin, a colloidal gel used as a stabilizer in the baking and ice-cream industries. Certain species are also used as fertilizer, and several are eaten as a vegetable (e.g., Laminaria, called kombu in Japan) in East Asia. Brown algae of the order Laminariales are popularly called kelps.
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