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president of Chile (1841-51) whose administration was notable for public works improvements, economic progress, and cultural advances. When he was a general, his military victory against the Bolivian-Peruvian Confederation in 1839 assured his election to the presidency. Although the spokesman of the Conservative oligarchy, Bulnes found posts for many liberals in his government, and social and political stability made Chile a haven for many intellectual refugees from other dictatorships. The new interest in learning produced a generation of young intellectuals who openly opposed the oligarchical domination that Bulnes represented. Faced with growing discontent, Bulnes named his successor, Manuel Montt, and had him duly elected; he was obliged, however, to resort to military action to quell a brief but bitter civil war before Montt's tenure was secured. It was during Bulnes's administration that Chile took possession of the Strait of Magellan.