town, High Peak borough, administrative and historic county of Derbyshire, England, encircled by (but excluded from) the Peak District National Park. Standing between 1,000 and 1,100 feet (305 and 335 metres) above sea level, Buxton is the highest market town in England. The mineral waters have long been famous; they were used by the Romans, who called the place Aquae Arnemetiae. The baths fell into neglect but were rebuilt in the 16th century. Later the Church of St. Anne (1625) became known for the cures effected there. At the end of the 18th century the 5th duke of Devonshire, lord of the manor, improved the town. The Crescent was built (1780-86) in the Doric style, and mineral water is still drunk in its pump room. Buxton has a few light industries, and limestone is quarried nearby. Pop. (2001) 20,836.
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