by virtue of

virtue

[vur-choo]
noun
1.
moral excellence; goodness; righteousness.
2.
conformity of one's life and conduct to moral and ethical principles; uprightness; rectitude.
3.
chastity; virginity: to lose one's virtue.
4.
a particular moral excellence. Compare cardinal virtues, natural virtue, theological virtue.
5.
a good or admirable quality or property: the virtue of knowing one's weaknesses.
6.
effective force; power or potency: a charm with the virtue of removing warts.
7.
virtues, an order of angels. Compare angel ( def 1 ).
8.
manly excellence; valor.
Idioms
9.
by/in virtue of, by reason of; because of: to act by virtue of one's legitimate authority.
10.
make a virtue of necessity, to make the best of a difficult or unsatisfactory situation.

Origin:
1175–1225; alteration (with i < Latin) of Middle English vertu < Anglo-French, Old French < Latin virtūt- (stem of virtūs) maleness, worth, virtue, equivalent to vir man (see virile) + -tūt- abstract noun suffix

virtueless, adjective
virtuelessness, noun
nonvirtue, noun


1. See goodness. 2. probity, integrity.


1. vice.
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
virtue (ˈvɜːtjuː, -tʃuː)
 
n
1.  the quality or practice of moral excellence or righteousness
2.  a particular moral excellence: the virtue of tolerance
3.  any of the cardinal virtues (prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance) or theological virtues (faith, hope, and charity)
4.  any admirable quality, feature, or trait
5.  chastity, esp in women
6.  archaic an effective, active, or inherent power or force
7.  by virtue of, in virtue of on account of or by reason of
8.  make a virtue of necessity to acquiesce in doing something unpleasant with a show of grace because one must do it in any case
 
[C13: vertu, from Old French, from Latin virtūs manliness, courage, from vir man]
 
'virtueless
 
adj

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

virtue
early 13c., "moral life and conduct, moral excellence," vertu, from Anglo-Fr. and O.Fr. vertu, from L. virtutem (nom. virtus) "moral strength, manliness, valor, excellence, worth," from vir "man" (see virile). Phrase by virtue of (early 13c.) preserves alternative M.E. sense
of "efficacy." Wyclif Bible has virtue where K.J.V. uses power. The seven cardinal virtues (early 14c.) were divided into the natural (justice, prudence, temperance, fortitude) and the theological (hope, faith, charity). To make a virtue of a necessity (late 14c.) translates L. facere de necessitate virtutem. [Jerome]
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Idioms & Phrases

by virtue of

Also in virtue of. On the grounds of, by reason of, as in By virtue of a large inheritance she could easily afford not to work. [Early 1300s]

The American Heritage® Dictionary of Idioms by Christine Ammer.
Copyright © 1997. Published by Houghton Mifflin.
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