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any of a dozen tropical American birds belonging to the family Icteridae (order Passeriformes) and resembling the related oropendolas. Caciques are smaller than oropendolas and have a less-powerful bill, which lacks a frontal shield. These striking black-and-yellow or black-and-red birds make hanging nests. A common species is the all-black, yellow-billed cacique (Cacicus, or Amblycercus, holosericeus), about 20 cm (8 inches) long, found in areas from southern Mexico to Bolivia.