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alloy of copper with zinc, produced by heating fragments of copper with charcoal and a zinc ore, calamine or smithsonite, in a closed crucible to red heat (about 1,300 C, or 2,400 F). The ore is reduced to a zinc vapour that diffuses into the copper. Apparently invented in Asia Minor, this method of brass manufacture was common from the 1st millennium BC. In Roman times a brass industry was established based on this process. It continued in use through the 18th century, long after metallic zinc was known, because the calamine brass was esteemed more highly than the brass made by melting the copper and zinc together. See also brass