(Gaius Caesar) a.d. 12–41, emperor of Rome 37–41. Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
Caligula (kəˈlɪɡjʊlə)
original name Gaius Caesar, son of Germanicus. 12--41 ad, Roman emperor (37--41), noted for his cruelty and tyranny; assassinated

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

cognomen of the third Roman emperor (12 C.E.-41 C.E.), born Gaius Caesar. The nickname is lit. "little boot," given when he joined his father on military campaigns when still a toddler, in full, child-sized military gear; dim. of caliga "heavy military shoe," which some related to calx "heel, tread,"
and others to a root meaning "to wrap, bind."
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary
Caligula [(kuh-lig-yuh-luh)]

A cruel and insane ruler of the Roman Empire in the first century a.d.; one of the twelve Caesars. To humiliate the senators of Rome, he appointed his horse to the senate.

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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