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caliph

[key-lif, kal-if] /ˈkeɪ lɪf, ˈkæl ɪf/
noun
1.
a spiritual leader of Islam, claiming succession from Muhammad.
2.
any of the former Muslim rulers of Baghdad (until 1258) and of the Ottoman Empire (from 1571 until 1924).
Also, calif, kalif, kaliph, khalif.
Origin
1350-1400
1350-1400; Middle English caliphe, califfe < Middle French < Medieval Latin calipha < Arabic khalīf(a) successor (of Muhammad), derivative of khalafa succeed
Related forms
caliphal
[kal-uh-fuh l, key-luh-] /ˈkæl ə fəl, ˈkeɪ lə-/ (Show IPA),
adjective
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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British Dictionary definitions for caliphs

caliph

/ˈkeɪlɪf; ˈkæl-/
noun
1.
(Islam) the title of the successors of Mohammed as rulers of the Islamic world, later assumed by the Sultans of Turkey
Word Origin
C14: from Old French, from Arabic khalīfa successor
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for caliphs

caliph

n.

late 14c., from Old French caliphe (12c., also algalife), from Medieval Latin califa, from Arabic khalifa "successor," originally Abu-Bakr, who succeeded Muhammad in the role of leader of the faithful after the prophet's death.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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