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calque

[kalk] /kælk/
noun
1.
a loan translation, especially one resulting from bilingual interference in which the internal structure of a borrowed word or phrase is maintained but its morphemes are replaced by those of the native language, as German halbinsel for peninsula.
2.
verb (used with object), calqued, calquing.
3.
to form (a word or phrase) through the process of loan translation.
Origin
1655-1665
1655-65; < French, noun derivative of calquer to copy, base on < Italian calcare to trace over, tread < Latin: to trample
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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British Dictionary definitions for calque

calque

/kælk/
noun
1.
another word for loan translation
verb calques, calquing, calqued
2.
(transitive) another word for calk3
Word Origin
C20: from French: a tracing, from calquer, from Latin calcāre to tread
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin and History for calque
n.

"loan translation of a foreign word or phrase," from French calque, literally "a copy," from calquer "to trace by rubbing" (itself borrowed in English 1660s as calk), introduced 16c. from Italian calcare, from Latin calcare "to tread, to press down."

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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