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city, eastern Sao Paulo estado (state), southeastern Brazil, in the highlands near the Atibaia River at 2,274 feet (693 metres) above sea level. Formerly known as Nossa Senhora da Conceicao de Campinas de Mato Grosso and as Sao Carlos, it was given town status and was made the seat of a municipality in 1797. In the 19th century Campinas was the state's leading commercial centre. Although later surpassed by Sao Paulo and Santos, it was still significant as a clearing point for coffee, citrus, and sugarcane from the hinterland. It is now known as a rapidly growing industrial centre