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city, eastern Paraiba estado (state), northeastern Brazil, in the Bacamarte Mountains, at 1,804 feet (550 metres) above sea level. Located on the site of an Ariu Indian village, it was originally called Porta do Sertao (Gateway to the Desert). Made a village in 1766, it was elevated to city status in 1864 and renamed Campina Grande (Great Plain). It is an important commercial and industrial centre in the northeastern interior. The city is a distribution centre for sisal, feijao (beans), cassava (manioc), and leather products. Factories manufacture textiles, clothing, metallurgical products, plastics, and pharmaceuticals. The city is the seat of a regional university and has mineral and agricultural research stations and an art museum. Goods are transported by road, rail, river, and air to Joao Pessoa (the state capital) 80 miles (129 km) to the east, Recife, and other communities in Paraiba and neighbouring Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Norte states, most notably Caruaru, some 70 miles (110 km) to the south. Pop. (2005 est.) 357,200