a small container used especially by soldiers and hikers for carrying water or other liquids.
a general store and cafeteria at a military base.
a place where free entertainment is provided for military personnel.
a place, as in a factory, school, or summer camp, where refreshments and sometimes personal supplies are sold.
a recreation center or social club, especially for teenagers.
a place set up to dispense food during an emergency.
a snack bar.
British. a box or chest for cutlery and other table utensils.

1730–40; < French cantine < Italian cantina cellar, perhaps derivative of canto corner (see cant2) with -ina -ine1 Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
canteen (kænˈtiːn)
1.  a restaurant attached to a factory, school, etc, providing meals for large numbers of people
2.  a.  a small shop that provides a limited range of items, such as toilet requisites, to a military unit
 b.  a recreation centre for military personnel
3.  a soldier's eating and drinking utensils
4.  a temporary or mobile stand at which food is provided
5.  a.  a box in which a set of cutlery is laid out
 b.  the cutlery itself
6.  a flask or canister for carrying water or other liquids, as used by soldiers or travellers
[C18: from French cantine, from Italian cantina wine cellar, from canto corner, from Latin canthus iron hoop encircling chariot wheel; see cant²]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

c.1710, from Fr. cantine "sutler's shop," from It. cantina "wine cellar, vault." Perhaps another of the many meanings, now obsolete, that were applied to L. canto "corner;" in this case, perhaps "corner for storage." Extended to "refreshment room at a factory, school, etc." from 1870. Meaning "small
tin for water or liquor, carried by solders on the march, campers, etc." is from 1744.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
Cans and bottled drinks are not permitted on the river, so transfer any
  beverages into a re-usable water bottle or canteen.
Bring your beverages in plastic bottles or a canteen.
The ranch is known for its canteen offering snacks, drinks and pre-ordered
They are often even obliged to pay more for meals at the company canteen.
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