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non-metallic element, 1789, coined 1787 in French by Lavoisier as charbone, from Latin carbonem (nominative carbo) "a coal, glowing coal; charcoal," from PIE root *ker- (4) "heat, fire, to burn" (cf. Latin cremare "to burn;" Sanskrit krsna "black, burnt," kudayati "singes;" Lithuanian kuriu "to heat," karštas "hot," krosnis "oven;" Old Church Slavonic kurjo "to smoke," krada "fireplace, hearth;" Russian ceren "brazier;" Old High German harsta "roasting;" Gothic hauri "coal;" Old Norse hyrr "fire;" Old English heorð "hearth").
Carbon 14, long-lived radioactive isotope used in dating organic deposits, is from 1936. Carbon dating (using carbon 14) is recorded from 1958. Carbon cycle is attested from 1912. Carbon footprint was in use by 2001. Carbon paper (soon to be obsolete) is from 1895.
carbon car·bon (kär'bən)
A nonmetallic element occuring in many inorganic and in all organic compounds, existing as graphite and diamond and as a constituent of coal, limestone, and petroleum, and capable of chemical self-bonding to form a number of important molecules. Atomic number 6; atomic weight 12.01115; sublimation point above 3,500°C; melting point 3,550°C; specific gravity of amorphous carbon 1.8 to 2.1, of diamond 3.15 to 3.53, of graphite 1.9 to 2.3; valence 2, 3, 4.
A naturally abundant, nonmetallic element that occurs in all organic compounds and can be found in all known forms of life. Diamonds and graphite are pure forms, and carbon is a major constituent of coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Carbon generally forms four covalent bonds with other atoms in larger molecules. Atomic number 6; atomic weight 12.011; sublimation point above 3,500°C; boiling point 4,827°C; specific gravity of amorphous carbon 1.8 to 2.1, of diamond 3.15 to 3.53, of graphite 1.9 to 2.3; valence 2, 3, 4. See Periodic Table.
county, eastern Pennsylvania, U.S., flanked to the north by the Pocono Mountains and to the south by Blue Mountain and located midway between the cities of Wilkes-Barre and Allentown. It consists of a mountainous region lying largely in the Appalachian Ridge and Valley physiographic province. The principal waterways are the Lehigh River and Tobyhanna, Quakake, Nesquehoning, Mahoning, Lizard, and Aquashicola creeks, as well as Penn Forest and Wild Creek reservoirs. State parks include Hickory Run, Lehigh Gorge, and Beltzville, which surrounds Beltzville Lake. The Appalachian National Scenic Trail follows the ridgeline of Blue Mountain