town and episcopal see, Campania region, southern Italy, on the Volturno River and the ancient Appian Way, north of Naples. Casilinum was a strategic road junction and was contended for by the Carthaginian general Hannibal and the Romans from 216 to 211 BC, during the Second Punic War; it lost its importance to ancient Capua (now Santa Maria Capua Vetere), 3 miles (5 km) southeast. Modern Capua was founded on the site of Casilinum in AD 856 by the citizens of ancient Capua, which had been destroyed by the Saracens. Modern Capua changed hands frequently in the Middle Ages and was part of the Kingdom of Naples until 1860. The town is medieval in appearance, dominated by the cathedral (founded 856), which was rebuilt after destruction in 1943. Other landmarks are the Norman castle (1050), the towers of the castle of the Holy Roman emperor Frederick II (1239), and several churches and palaces, one housing the Campano Museum. Capua has good road and rail connections; its industry includes munitions, chemical, and sugar factories. Pop. (2006 est.) mun., 19,026.
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