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Italian painter and one of the most important technical innovators in the history of printmaking. Beginning in the highly artificial style of Mannerism, Castiglione was a productive painter who left portraits (though very few survived from what had been a large production), images of saints and patriarchs, historical pieces, and landscapes but who excelled in depicting fairs, markets, and rural scenes with animals. He also showed an interest in magic, philosophy, images of human failing, and the transitoriness of life.