[kat-i-gawr-ee, -gohr-ee]
noun, plural categories.
any general or comprehensive division; a class.
a classificatory division in any field of knowledge, as a phylum or any of its subdivisions in biology.
(in Aristotelian philosophy) any of the fundamental modes of existence, such as substance, quality, and quantity, as determined by analysis of the different possible kinds of predication.
(in Kantian philosophy) any of the fundamental principles of the understanding, as the principle of causation.
any classification of terms that is ultimate and not susceptible to further analysis.
categories, Also called Guggenheim. (used with a singular verb) a game in which a key word and a list of categories, as dogs, automobiles, or rivers, are selected, and in which each player writes down a word in each category that begins with each of the letters of the key word, the player writing down the most words within a time limit being declared the winner.
Mathematics. a type of mathematical object, as a set, group, or metric space, together with a set of mappings from such an object to other objects of the same type.
Grammar, part of speech.

1580–90; < Late Latin catēgoria < Greek katēgoría accusation (also, kind of predication), equivalent to katḗgor(os) accuser, affirmer (katēgor(eîn) to accuse, affirm, literally, speak publicly against, equivalent to kata- cata- + -agoreîn to speak before the agora + -os noun suffix) + -ia -y3

1. group, grouping, type. Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
category (ˈkætɪɡərɪ)
n , pl -ries
1.  a class or group of things, people, etc, possessing some quality or qualities in common; a division in a system of classification
2.  metaphysics any one of the most basic classes into which objects and concepts can be analysed
3.  a.  (in the philosophy of Aristotle) any one of ten most fundamental modes of being, such as quantity, quality, and substance
 b.  (in the philosophy of Kant) one of twelve concepts required by human beings to interpret the empirical world
 c.  See also category mistake any set of objects, concepts, or expressions distinguished from others within some logical or linguistic theory by the intelligibility of a specific set of statements concerning them
[C15: from Late Latin catēgoria, from Greek katēgoria, from kategorein to accuse, assert]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

1588, from M.Fr. catégorie, from L.L. categoria, from Gk. kategorein "to accuse, assert, predicate," from kata "down to," + agoreuein "to declaim (in the assembly)," from agora "public assembly." Original sense of "accuse" weakened to "assert, name" by the time Aristotle applied kategoria to his
10 classes of things that can be named. Categorize is attested from 1705; categorization is from 1886.
"category should be used by no-one who is not prepared to state (1) that he does not mean class, & (2) that he knows the difference between the two ...." [Fowler]
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
Linguistic categories make up a system of surviving dogma-dogma of the
Being a study of character which is incidentally historical, it does not stand
  apart from the accepted dramatic categories.
The two alternations belong, then, to entirely different psychological
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