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city, Marion and Clinton counties, south-central Illinois, U.S. It lies about 60 miles (100 km) east of St. Louis, Missouri. Centralia was founded in 1853 by the Illinois Central Railroad (from which its name derives), and railroad shops and fruit growing formed the basis of the local economy. The town was settled largely by German immigrants, whose influence is still evident. Oil was discovered in the area in the 1930s. Centralia was the site of a devastating coal-mining disaster in 1947, when 111 miners died after being trapped by an explosion. The railroad is still important to the local economy, and other economic activities include agriculture (dairying, soybeans, corn [maize], wheat, and livestock), coal mining, oil and natural gas production, food processing, and light manufacturing (automobile parts, fuses, paper packaging, fibreglass, and plastics). Centralia is the site of the Warren G. Murray Developmental Center for the developmentally disabled; it is also the seat of Kaskaskia (community) College (founded in 1940 as Centralia Junior College). Centralia features a 160-foot (50-metre) carillon tower, built in 1982. A hot-air balloon festival is held annually in August. At nearby Carlyle Lake are Eldon Hazlet and South Shore state parks. Inc. 1859. Pop. (1990) 14,274; (2000) 14,136.