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mining city, located in the highlands of central Peru, northeast of Lima, to which it is connected by rail and highway. One of the world's highest cities, it lies at an elevation of 14,232 feet (4,338 m). Rich silver ores were discovered nearby in 1630, and for about two centuries it was one of the world's chief sources of silver. The city is known for its copper, gold, lead, zinc, and bismuth mines. During the 1970s the new town of San Juan de Pampa was built nearby. Pop. (2005) 29,030.