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city and district centre, Latvia, situated on the Gauja River at the foot of the Vidzeme (Livonia) highlands, 55 miles (90 km) northeast of the city of Riga. It is an old city, first mentioned in documents in 1206, and its castle dates from 1207. It was once a prosperous town of the Hanseatic League, as evidenced in its fine architecture, including the Church of St. John (1283). The old town is now preserved by government decree. After a long period of decline, Cesis began to grow again in the last century after the construction of the Riga-Valka railway. An industrial suburb to the east manufactures foodstuffs and building materials and specializes in metalworking. Pop. (1992 est.) 22,100