a person or thing that challenges.
Boxing. a boxer who fights a champion for his championship title.
Radio. interrogator ( def 2 ).
(initial capital letter, italics) U.S. Aerospace. the second space shuttle to orbit and return to earth: exploded 1½ min. after launch on Jan. 28, 1986, causing the death of all seven on board.

1250–1300; Middle English; see challenge, -er1

nonchallenger, noun Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
challenge (ˈtʃælɪndʒ)
1.  to invite or summon (someone to do something, esp to take part in a contest)
2.  (also intr) to call (something) into question; dispute
3.  to make demands on; stimulate: the job challenges his ingenuity
4.  to order (a person) to halt and be identified or to give a password
5.  law to make formal objection to (a juror or jury)
6.  to lay claim to (attention, etc)
7.  (intr) hunting (of a hound) to cry out on first encountering the scent of a quarry
8.  to inject (an experimental animal immunized with a test substance) with disease microorganisms to test for immunity to the disease
9.  a call to engage in a fight, argument, or contest
10.  a questioning of a statement or fact; a demand for justification or explanation
11.  a demanding or stimulating situation, career, object, etc
12.  a demand by a sentry, watchman, etc, for identification or a password
13.  (US) an assertion that a person is not entitled to vote or that a vote is invalid
14.  law a formal objection to a person selected to serve on a jury (challenge to the polls) or to the whole body of jurors (challenge to the array)
[C13: from Old French chalenge, from Latin calumniacalumny]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

late 13c., Anglo-Fr. chalengeour, agent noun from challenge. Specific sense of "one who calls out another in a contest" is from 1511.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
Instead of sticking with the issues, you impugn the challenger's character and
Challenger's handler crossed the majestic set to center stage, with the
  national bird's impressive talons encircling his arm.
If things are truly awful, he might even face a significant primary challenger.
Wait for a primary challenger that will likely never show up.
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