services and institutions concerned with the physical, social, and psychological well-being of children, particularly children suffering from the effects of poverty or lacking normal parental care and supervision. In the Western world, and particularly in the larger cities, child welfare includes a range of highly specialized services that go far beyond physical survival and deal with such problems as personality development, vocational guidance, and use of leisure time. In less-developed countries and in the aftermath of war and disaster, child welfare services may apply only the essential measures to keep children alive, such as emergency feeding, shelter, and simple public health precautions. The general standard of living, the level of education, and the financial resources of the country are among the factors that determine child welfare standards
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