a mineral, mercuric sulfide, HgS, occurring in red crystals or masses: the principal ore of mercury.
red mercuric sulfide, used as a pigment.
bright red; vermillion.

1350–1400; < Latin cinnabaris < Greek kinnábari < ?; replacing Middle English cynoper < Medieval Latin, Latin as above

cinnabarine [sin-uh-buh-reen, -ber-in, -bahr-ahyn, -een] , cinnabaric [sin-uh-bar-ik] , adjective Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
cinnabar (ˈsɪnəˌbɑː)
1.  a bright red or brownish-red mineral form of mercuric sulphide (mercury(II) sulphide), found close to areas of volcanic activity and hot springs. It is the main commercial source of mercury. Formula: HgS. Crystal structure: hexagonal
2.  the red form of mercuric sulphide (mercury(II) sulphide), esp when used as a pigment
3.  a bright red to reddish-orange; vermilion
4.  a large red-and-black European moth, Callimorpha jacobaeae: family Arctiidae (tiger moths, etc)
[C15: from Old French cenobre, from Latin cinnābaris, from Greek kinnabari, of Oriental origin]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

1382, "red or crystalline form of mercuric sulphide," also applied to other ores of mercury, originally with reference to its use as a pigment; from O.Fr. cinabre, L. cinnabaris, from Gk. kinnabari, of oriental origin (cf. Pers. zanjifrah in the same sense). Also used 14c.-17c. of red resinous juice
of a certain Eastern tree, which was believed to be a mixture of dragon's and elephant's blood.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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