a person who is not on active duty with a military, naval, police, or fire fighting organization.
Informal. anyone regarded by members of a profession, interest group, society, etc., as not belonging; nonprofessional; outsider: We need a producer to run the movie studio, not some civilian from the business world.
a person versed in or studying Roman or civil law.
of, pertaining to, formed by, or administered by civilians.

1350–1400; Middle English: student of civil law < Old French civilien (adj.); see civil, -ian

anticivilian, adjective
noncivilian, noun
procivilian, adjective Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
civilian (sɪˈvɪljən)
a.  a person whose primary occupation is civil or nonmilitary
 b.  (as modifier): civilian life
[C14 (originally: a practitioner of civil law): from civile (from the Latin phrase jūs cīvīle civil law) + -ian]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

1388, from O.Fr. civilien "of the civil law," created from L. civilis (see civil). Original meaning in Eng. was "judge or authority on civil law," sense of "non-military person" is first attested 1829.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
The rover may have other jobs to do than to send pics to civilians.
Aside from the health and economic downsides that civilians face, tobacco-using
  military personnel encounter other risks.
Nearly two hundred protesters were arrested, and seventy civilians and
  fifty-one policemen were wounded.
He insults civilians, walks checks, abandons rentals and dodges tabs at fancy
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