American symphony orchestra based in Cleveland, Ohio. It was founded by Adella Prentiss Hughes in 1918 and was one of the last major American orchestras to be created. Nikolai Sokoloff (1918-33), the first music director, was succeeded by Artur Rodzinski (1933-43), Erich Leinsdorf (1943-46, mostly in absentia; he was serving concurrently in the U.S. armed forces), George Szell (1946-70), Pierre Boulez (1970-72), Lorin Maazel (1972-82), and Christoph von Dohnanyi (from 1984). From 1987, Vladimir Ashkenazy was principal guest conductor
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