in ancient Rome, the relationship between a man of wealth and influence (patron) and a free client; the client acknowledged his dependence on the patron and received protection in return. This sort of relationship was recognized in law as early as the 5th century BC; by the 1st century BC it had become hereditary. Freed slaves were automatically clients of their former owners. The patron might support his client in the courts or supply him with daily food, often converted into cash (sportula). The client was expected to show deference to his patron, especially by calling upon him each morning (salutatio) and by aiding him in his private and public life. The political influence exercised by patrons over their clients was of considerable importance in the voting conducted in the public assemblies (comitia) under the republic. In the courts, no evidence could be given by patron or client against each other. Under the empire (i.e., after 27 BC) clients were often looked upon as parasites; because of their duty of salutatio they were sometimes called salutatores ("greeters"), or togati because they were required to wear the toga when it was passing out of fashion. Clientage became the most important social relationship in the Roman provinces as well as in Rome. The extension of the system to client nations was a cardinal feature of the growth and maintenance of Roman power under Julius Caesar and the emperors.
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