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Yours, Etc.: Origins and Uses of 8 Sign-Offs

close

[v. klohz; adj., adv. klohs or for 51, klohz; n. klohz for 59, 60, 63–65, 67, 68, klohs for 61, 62, 66] /v. kloʊz; adj., adv. kloʊs or for 51, kloʊz; n. kloʊz for 59, 60, 63–65, 67, 68, kloʊs for 61, 62, 66/
verb (used with object), closed, closing.
1.
to put (something) in a position to obstruct an entrance, opening, etc.; shut.
2.
to stop or obstruct (a gap, entrance, aperture, etc.):
to close a hole in a wall with plaster.
3.
to block or hinder passage across or access to:
to close a border to tourists; to close the woods to picnickers.
4.
to stop or obstruct the entrances, apertures, or gaps in:
He closed the crate and tied it up.
5.
(of the mind) to make imperceptive or inaccessible:
to close one's mind to the opposite opinion.
6.
to bring together the parts of; join; unite (often followed by up):
Close up those ranks! The surgeon closed the incision.
7.
Electricity. to complete (an electrical circuit) by joining the circuit elements:
The circuit was closed so the current could be measured.
8.
to bring to an end:
to close a debate.
9.
to arrange the final details of; to conclude negotiations about:
to close a deal to everyone's satisfaction.
10.
to complete or settle (a contract or transaction); consummate:
We close the sale of the house next week.
11.
to stop rendering the customary services of:
to close a store for the night.
12.
to terminate or suspend the operation of; to halt the activities of:
The epidemic forced authorities to close the schools. The police closed the bar for selling liquor to minors.
13.
Nautical. to come close to:
We closed the cruiser to put our injured captain on board.
14.
Metalworking. to reduce the internal diameter of (a tube or the like).
15.
Archaic. to shut in or surround on all sides; enclose; cover in:
to close a bird in a cage.
verb (used without object), closed, closing.
16.
to become closed; shut:
The door closed with a bang. This window is stuck and will not close tight.
17.
to come together; unite:
Her lips closed firmly.
18.
to come close:
His pursuers closed rapidly.
19.
to grapple; engage in close encounter (often followed by with):
We closed with the invaders shortly before sundown.
20.
to come to an end; terminate:
The service closed with a hymn.
21.
to cease to offer the customary activities or services:
The school closed for the summer.
22.
to enter into or reach an agreement, usually as a contract:
The builder closed with the contractor after negotiations.
23.
(of a theatrical production) to cease to be performed:
The play closed in New York yesterday and will open in Dallas next week.
24.
(of a stock, group of stocks, etc.) to be priced or show a change in price as specified at the end of a trading period:
The market closed low for the fourth straight day.
adjective, closer, closest.
25.
having the parts or elements near to one another:
a close formation of battleships.
26.
compact; dense:
a close texture; a close weave.
27.
being in or having proximity in space or time:
The barn is so close to the house that you can hear the animals. His birthday is in May, close to mine.
28.
marked by similarity in degree, action, feeling, etc.:
This dark pink is close to red. He left her close to tears.
29.
near, or near together, in kind or relationship:
a flower close to a rose; a close relative.
30.
intimate or confidential; dear.
31.
based on a strong uniting feeling of respect, honor, or love:
a close circle of friends.
32.
fitting tightly:
a close, clinging negligee.
33.
(of a haircut or shave, the mowing of a lawn, etc.) so executed that the hair, grass, or the like is left flush with the surface or very short.
34.
not deviating from the subject under consideration.
35.
strict; searching; minute:
The matter requires close investigation.
36.
not deviating from a model or original:
a close, literal translation.
37.
nearly even or equal:
a close contest.
38.
strictly logical:
close reasoning.
39.
shut; shut tight; not open:
a close hatch.
40.
shut in; enclosed.
41.
completely enclosing or surrounding:
a close siege preventing all escape.
42.
without opening; with all openings covered or closed.
43.
confined; narrow:
close quarters.
44.
lacking fresh or freely circulating air:
a hot, close room.
45.
heavy; oppressive:
a spell of close, sultry weather.
46.
narrowly confined, as a prisoner.
47.
practicing or keeping secrecy; secretive; reticent:
She is so close that you can tell her all your secrets.
48.
parsimonious; stingy:
He is very close with his money.
49.
scarce, as money.
50.
not open to public or general admission, competition, etc.:
The entire parish participated in the close communication.
51.
(of a delimiting punctuation mark) occurring at the end of a group of words or characters that is set off, as from surrounding text:
close parentheses; close quotes; close brackets.
Compare open (def 32).
52.
Hunting, Angling. closed (def 8).
53.
Phonetics. (of a vowel) articulated with a relatively small opening between the tongue and the roof of the mouth.
Compare high (def 23), open (def 34a).
54.
Heraldry. (of a bird) represented as having folded wings:
an eagle close.
55.
Archaic. viscous; not volatile.
adverb
56.
in a close manner; closely.
57.
near; close by.
58.
Heraldry. immediately behind the ears, so as to show no neck:
a bear's head couped close.
noun
59.
the act of closing.
60.
the end or conclusion:
at the close of day; the close of the speech.
61.
an enclosed place or enclosure, especially one about or beside a cathedral or other building.
62.
any piece of land held as private property.
64.
Music. cadence (def 7).
65.
Stock Exchange.
  1. the closing price on a stock.
  2. the closing prices on an exchange market.
66.
Scot.
  1. a narrow entry or alley terminating in a dead end.
  2. a courtyard enclosed except for one narrow entrance.
67.
Archaic. a junction; union.
68.
Obsolete. a close encounter; a grapple:
The fighters met in a fierce close.
Verb phrases
69.
close down,
  1. to terminate the operation of; discontinue:
    to close down an air base because of budget cuts.
  2. to attempt to control or eliminate:
    The city must close down drug traffic.
70.
close in on/upon,
  1. to approach so as to capture, attack, arrest, etc.:
    The hoodlums closed in on their victim.
  2. to surround or envelop so as to entrap:
    a feeling that the room was closing in upon her.
71.
close out,
  1. to reduce the price of (merchandise) for quick sale:
    That store is closing out its stock of men's clothing.
  2. to liquidate or dispose of finally and completely:
    They closed out their interests after many years in this city.
72.
close up,
  1. to come together in close array; converge:
    The enemy was closing up on us from both flanks.
  2. to bring to an end; cease:
    The company is closing up its overseas operations.
  3. to become silent or uncommunicative.
  4. to reduce or eliminate spacing material between (units of set type).
Idioms
73.
close ranks, to unite forces, especially by overlooking petty differences, in order to deal with an adverse or challenging situation; to join together in a show of unity, especially to the public:
When the newspaper story broke suggesting possible corruption in the government, the politicians all closed ranks.
74.
close to the wind, Nautical. in a direction nearly opposite to that from which the wind is coming:
to sail close to the wind.
75.
close up,
  1. from close range; in a detailed manner; intimately.
  2. Nautical. fully raised; at the top of the halyard:
    an answering pennant flown close up.
    Compare dip (def 37).
Origin
1050
before 1050; (noun, adj.) Middle English clos < Anglo-French, Old French < Latin clausus, past participle of claudere to close (cf. clause); (v.) Middle English closen, verbal derivative of the adj. (compare Old English clȳsan, beclȳsan to shut in, enclose, verbal derivative of clūse bar, enclosure < Medieval Latin clūsa, for Latin clausa, feminine of clausus); noun and adj. senses with voiced pronunciation of s are presumably modern deverbal derivatives
Related forms
closable, closeable
[kloh-zuh-buh l] /ˈkloʊ zə bəl/ (Show IPA),
adjective
closely
[klohs-lee] /ˈkloʊs li/ (Show IPA),
adverb
closeness
[klohs-nis] /ˈkloʊs nɪs/ (Show IPA),
noun
nonclose, adjective
nonclosely, adverb
overclose, adjective
overclosely, adverb
overcloseness, noun
preclose, verb (used with object), preclosed, preclosing.
unclosable, adjective
Can be confused
close, cloth, clothe, clothes, cloze (see synonym study at the current entry)
Synonyms
2. bar; clog; choke. Close, shut mean to cause something not to be open. Close suggests blocking an opening or vacant place: to close a breach in a wall. The word shut refers especially to blocking or barring openings intended for entering and leaving: to shut a door, gate, etc., and close can be used in this sense, too: to close a door, gate, etc. 8. complete, end, conclude, terminate, finish. 21. stop; suspend. 26. firm, solid. 27. immediate, proximate, nearby. 35. intent, concentrated. 36. scrupulous, exacting, accurate, faithful. 45. muggy, thick. 47. taciturn, uncommunicative, reserved. 48. penurious, miserly, tight, mean. See stingy1 . 59. See end1 .
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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British Dictionary definitions for closing in on

close1

/kləʊs/
adjective
1.
near in space or time; in proximity
2.
having the parts near together; dense: a close formation
3.
down or near to the surface; short: a close haircut
4.
near in relationship: a close relative
5.
intimate or confidential: a close friend
6.
almost equal or even: a close contest
7.
not deviating or varying greatly from a model or standard: a close resemblance, a close translation
8.
careful, strict, or searching: a close study
9.
(of a style of play in football, hockey, etc) characterized by short passes
10.
confined or enclosed
11.
shut or shut tight
12.
oppressive, heavy, or airless: a close atmosphere
13.
strictly guarded: a close prisoner
14.
neat or tight in fit: a close cap
15.
secretive or reticent
16.
miserly; not generous, esp with money
17.
(of money or credit) hard to obtain; scarce
18.
restricted as to public admission or membership
19.
hidden or secluded
20.
Also closed. restricted or prohibited as to the type of game or fish able to be taken
21.
(phonetics) Also closed, narrow. denoting a vowel pronounced with the lips relatively close together
adverb
22.
closely; tightly
23.
near or in proximity
24.
(nautical) close to the wind, sailing as nearly as possible towards the direction from which the wind is blowing See also wind1 (sense 26)
Derived Forms
closely, adverb
closeness, noun
Word Origin
C13: from Old French clos close, enclosed, from Latin clausus shut up, from claudere to close

close2

/kləʊz/
verb
1.
to put or be put in such a position as to cover an opening; shut: the door closed behind him
2.
(transitive) to bar, obstruct, or fill up (an entrance, a hole, etc): to close a road
3.
to bring the parts or edges of (a wound, etc) together or (of a wound, etc) to be brought together
4.
(intransitive; foll by on, over, etc) to take hold: his hand closed over the money
5.
to bring or be brought to an end; terminate
6.
to complete (an agreement, a deal, etc) successfully or (of an agreement, deal, etc) to be completed successfully
7.
to cease or cause to cease to render service: the shop closed at six
8.
(intransitive) (stock exchange) to have a value at the end of a day's trading, as specified: steels closed two points down
9.
to complete an electrical circuit
10.
(transitive) (nautical) to pass near
11.
(transitive) (archaic) to enclose or shut in
12.
close one's eyes
  1. (euphemistic) to die
  2. (often foll by to) to ignore
noun
13.
the act of closing
14.
the end or conclusion: the close of the day
15.
a place of joining or meeting
16.
(law) (kləʊs). private property, usually enclosed by a fence, hedge, or wall
17.
(Brit) (kləʊs). a courtyard or quadrangle enclosed by buildings or an entry leading to such a courtyard
18.
(Brit) (capital when part of a street name) (kləʊs). a small quiet residential road: Hillside Close
19.
(Brit) a field
20.
(kləʊs). the precincts of a cathedral or similar building
21.
(Scot) (kləʊs). the entry from the street to a tenement building
22.
(music) another word for cadence
23.
(archaic or rare) an encounter in battle; grapple
Derived Forms
closer, noun
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for closing in on

close

v.

c.1200, "to shut, cover in," from Old French clos- (past participle stem of clore "to shut, to cut off from"), 12c., from Latin clausus, past participle of claudere "to shut, close; to block up, make inaccessible; put an end to; shut in, enclose, confine" (always -clusus, -cludere in compounds).

The Latin word might be from the possible PIE root *klau- "hook, peg, crooked or forked branch" (used as a bar or bolt in primitive structures); cf. Latin clavis "key," clavus "nail," claustrum "bar, bolt, barrier," claustra "dam, wall, barricade, stronghold;" Greek kleidos (genitive) "bar, bolt, key," klobos "cage;" Old Irish clo "nail," Middle Irish clithar "hedge, fence;" Old Church Slavonic ključi "hook, key," ključiti "shut;" Lithuanian kliuti "to catch, be caught on," kliaudziu "check, hinder," kliuvu "clasp, hang;" Old High German sliozan "shut," German schließen "to shut," Schlüssel "key."

Also partly from Old English beclysan "close in, shut up." Intransitive sense "become shut" is from late 14c. Meaning "draw near to" is from 1520s. Intransitive meaning "draw together, come together" is from 1550s, hence the idea in military verbal phrase close ranks (mid-17c.), later with figurative extensions. Meaning "bring to an end, finish" is from c.1400; intransitive sense "come to an end" is from 1826. Of stock prices, from 1860. Meaning "bring together the parts of" (a book, etc.) is from 1560s. Related: Closed; closing.

adj.

late 14c., "strictly confined," also "secret," from Old French clos "confined; concealed, secret; taciturn" (12c.), from Latin clausus "close, reserved," past participle adjective from claudere "stop up, fasten, shut" (see close (v.)); main sense shifting to "near" (late 15c.) by way of "closing the gap between two things." Related: Closely.

Meaning "narrowly confined, pent up" is late 14c. Meaning "near" in a figurative sense, of persons, from 1560s. Meaning "full of attention to detail" is from 1660s. Of contests, from 1855. Close call is from 1866, in a quotation in an anecdote from 1863, possibly a term from the American Civil War; close shave in the figurative sense is 1820, American English. Close range is from 1814. Close-minded is attested from 1818. Close-fisted "penurious, miserly" is from c.1600.

n.

late 14c., "act of closing, conclusion, termination," from close (v.). Also in early use "enclosure, enclosed space" (late 13c.), from Old French clos, noun use of past participle.

adv.

"tightly, with no opening or space between," from close (adj.).

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Slang definitions & phrases for closing in on

close

adjective
  1. Parsimonious; stingy (1600s+)
  2. ery good; extraordinary: Oh, man, this is crazy close! (1960s+ Students)
Related Terms

that's close


The Dictionary of American Slang, Fourth Edition by Barbara Ann Kipfer, PhD. and Robert L. Chapman, Ph.D.
Copyright (C) 2007 by HarperCollins Publishers.
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Idioms and Phrases with closing in on
The American Heritage® Idioms Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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