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in various Christian denominations, especially Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, and Eastern Orthodoxy, the view that bishops, in addition to their role as individuals presiding over local churches (in most cases, dioceses), are members of a body that has the same teaching and ruling functions in the universal church that the Apostles had in the early church. Based on the concept in Roman law of "college," a body of persons, not fewer than three, associated together by the possession of common function, the collegiality of bishops is reflected in the ancient tradition that at least three bishops should participate in the consecration of a priest to the episcopate. Historically, the collegiate function of bishops has been manifested in regional or national synods or conferences and in the less frequent meetings of all bishops (ecumenical councils). The second Vatican Council (1962-65) clarified the Roman Catholic position on the relationship of the bishops to the pope, who is considered by Catholics to be head of the episcopal college. The concept should not be confused with collegiate episcopacy (the government of a local church by a body of presbyters as found in the 1st century).