color blindness

inability to distinguish one or several chromatic colors, independent of the capacity for distinguishing light and shade.
complete inability to distinguish colors of the spectrum, with all objects appearing as shades of gray, black, and white, varying only as to lightness and darkness; achromatopsia.

1835–45 Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Word Origin & History

color blindness
1844, replacing Daltonism (after Eng. chemist John Dalton, 1766-1844, who published a description of it in 1794); in fig, use, with ref. to race or ethnicity, attested from 1866, Amer.Eng. Related: color blind.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

color blindness n.
Deficiency of color perception, whether hereditary or acquired, partial or complete.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Example sentences
There are many things to plan for, such as color blindness, that you can use to
  help make decisions.
As fast and powerful as these listening tests are, they can't quite match color
  blindness tests.
Genetic intervention cures color blindness in monkeys.
It is, however a pity that the supporting graphs are making no allowance for
  color blindness.
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