conscientious objection

noun
refusal on moral or religious grounds to bear arms in a military conflict or to serve in the armed forces.

Origin:
1895–1900

conscientious objector, noun
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Collins
World English Dictionary
conscientious objector
 
n
a person who refuses to serve in the armed forces on the grounds of conscience

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

conscientious objector
1899, with ref. to British government in India and religious scruples about mandatory vaccination. Military sense predominated from World War I.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary
conscientious objector (CO)

A person who refuses to render military service on the grounds of moral principle or religious belief. A CO must demonstrate a sincere, active, and long-standing objection in order to receive an exemption from armed service. The United States and some European governments officially recognize CO status; approved COs are usually required to perform social service or noncombat military service in place of armed duty. (See also draft, draft dodger, and Selective Service System.)

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
He tried to get out of the military as a conscientious objector after that.
He or she could get out of performing the execution by claiming status as a conscientious objector, which would always be granted.
Here was the conscientious objector with the same determination to prevent a far worse war.
As a delinquent, he was disallowed an appeal as a conscientious objector.
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