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medieval Spanish advisory council consisting of nobles and church prelates. Initially created at the request of the Cortes (parliament) to serve as its permanent representative, the consejo real evolved into a body controlled by the monarch. John I of Castile formally determined the first council's structure in 1386, adding four members, usually lawyers, to the former eight-member group. John II separated the council into a governmental advisory and a juridical body. During the reign of the Catholic monarchs (1479-1516) the council consisted of a prelate, three nobles, and eight or nine lawyers. The nobles lost their voting power, and the poorer and more dependent lawyers became the voting majority. The council served at this time as merely a bureaucratic body for the execution of royal policy. Three other councils were also created: those of the Inquisition, of the orders of knighthood, and of the hermandad. By 1630 all legislation had to be approved by the council's juridical and advisory bodies