a person who gives professional or expert advice: a consultant on business methods.
a person who consults someone or something.

1690–1700; (< F) < Latin consultant- (stem of consultāns, present participle of consultāre). See consult, -ant Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
consultant (kənˈsʌltənt)
1.  a.  a senior physician, esp a specialist, who is asked to confirm a diagnosis or treatment or to provide an opinion
 b.  a physician or surgeon holding the highest appointment in a particular branch of medicine or surgery in a hospital
2.  a specialist who gives expert advice or information
3.  a person who asks advice in a consultation

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

1690s, of persons going to oracles, from L. consultantem, prp. of consultare (see consultation). Of physicians, from 1878; meaning "one qualified to give professional advice" is first attested 1893 in a "Sherlock Holmes" story. Related: Consultancy (1955).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

consultant con·sult·ant (kən-sŭl'tənt)

  1. A physician or surgeon who does not take actual charge of a patient, but acts in an advisory capacity to the patient's primary physician.

  2. Such a member of a hospital staff who may advise the attending physician or surgeon.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Computing Dictionary

consultant definition

A person who facilitates organisational change and/or provides subject matter expertise on technical, functional and business topics during development or implementation. Consultants perform business requirements analysis, recommends selection of packaged software, develop proposals for consulting services and manage implementation projects at client sites. They provides expert knowledge of products such as SAP R/3, PeopleSoft, HRMS/Financials, and SmartStream.
The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, © Denis Howe 2010
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Example sentences
It seems almost impossible to argue that you shouldn't take on outside work as
  a consultant.
Currently he is an independent researcher, writer and consultant.
Matt worked as an energy consultant helping homeowners and businesses develop
  solar power systems.
One powerful pension-fund consultant has spoken out against consolidation in
  the industry.
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