control group

noun
(in an experiment or clinical trial) a group of subjects closely resembling the treatment group in many demographic variables but not receiving the active medication or factor under study and thereby serving as a comparison group when treatment results are evaluated.

Origin:
1950–55

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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Collins
World English Dictionary
control group
 
n
any group used as a control in a statistical experiment, esp a group of patients who receive either a placebo or a standard drug during an investigation of the effects of another drug on other patients

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Dictionary.com's 21st Century Lexicon
Main Entry:  control group
Part of Speech:  n
Definition:  in a test or trial, a group that does not receive the new treatment being studied and which is compared to the group that does receive the new treatment
Usage:  medicine
Dictionary.com's 21st Century Lexicon
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

control group n.
A group used as a standard of comparison in a control experiment.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Example sentences
The other babies were the control group and were not shown the monkey photos
  again.
One group of volunteers then received eight weeks of training in meditation,
  while a control group did not.
None of the members of an untreated control group survived the four-month
  period over which the experiment was conducted.
Game players, it turned out, were no more aggressive than the control group.
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