a fixed or firm belief: No clever argument, no persuasive fact or theory could make a dent in his conviction in the rightness of his position.
the act of convicting; a declaration that a person is guilty of an offense.
the state of being convicted.
the act of moving a person by argument or evidence to belief, agreement, consent, or a course of action; the act of convincing.
the state of being convinced.

1400–50; late Middle English < Late Latin convictiōn- (stem of convictiō) proof (of guilt). See convict, -ion

convictional, adjective
nonconviction, noun
preconviction, noun
proconviction, adjective
reconviction, noun

1. See belief.

5. doubt, uncertainty. Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
conviction (kənˈvɪkʃən)
1.  the state or appearance of being convinced
2.  a fixed or firmly held belief, opinion, etc
3.  the act of convincing
4.  the act or an instance of convicting or the state of being convicted
5.  carry conviction to be convincing

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

late 15c., "the proving of guilt," from L. convictionem, noun of action from convincere (see convince). Meaning "mental state of being convinced" is from 1690s; that of "firm belief, a belief held as proven" is from 1841.

"those ideas which one believes to be true," 1883, from pl. of conviction.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
Their records were searched for criminal arrests and convictions.
Others are tempted to skirt the truth when asked why they left a job or if they
  have past criminal convictions.
Obviously, some faculty members have convictions that no amount of evidence to
  the contrary can change.
Both sides have deeply held convictions which are based on experience and
  evidence that they have looked at.
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