the branch of philosophy dealing with the origin and general structure of the universe, with its parts, elements, and laws, and especially with such of its characteristics as space, time, causality, and freedom.
the branch of astronomy that deals with the general structure and evolution of the universe.

1650–60; < Neo-Latin cosmologia. See cosmo-, -logy

cosmologer, cosmologist, noun
cosmological [koz-muh-loj-i-kuhl] , cosmologic, adjective
cosmologically, adverb Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
cosmology (kɒzˈmɒlədʒɪ)
1.  the philosophical study of the origin and nature of the universe
2.  the branch of astronomy concerned with the evolution and structure of the universe
3.  a particular account of the origin or structure of the universe: Ptolemaic cosmology

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

1650s, from Mod.L. cosmologia, from Gk. kosmos (see cosmos) + -logia "discourse."
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
cosmology   (kŏz-mŏl'ə-jē)  Pronunciation Key 
  1. The scientific study of the origin, evolution, and structure of the universe.

  2. A specific theory or model of the origin and evolution of the universe.

The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary
cosmology [(koz-mol-uh-jee)]

A system of beliefs that seeks to describe or explain the origin and structure of the universe. A cosmology attempts to establish an ordered, harmonious framework that integrates time, space, the planets, stars, and other celestial phenomena. In so-called primitive societies, cosmologies help explain the relationship of human beings to the rest of the universe and are therefore closely tied to religious beliefs and practices. In modern industrial societies, cosmologies seek to explain the universe through astronomy and mathematics. Metaphysics also plays a part in the formation of cosmologies. (See also under “Physical Sciences and Mathematics.”)

cosmology [(koz-mol-uh-jee)]

The branch of science dealing with the large-scale structure, origins, and development of the universe. (See astronomy and Big Bang theory.)

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
By then the discovery of the cosmic microwave background was transforming
He loved the age-old mysteries surrounding the nature of matter, time and space
  at the heart of cosmology and metaphysics.
The current standard cosmology has no guidance, it has observed and elucidated
  a process.
The history of particle cosmology shows that science can benefit from wrenching
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