1802, from French surveillance "oversight, supervision, a watch," noun of action from surveiller "oversee, watch," from sur- "over" + veiller "to watch," from Latin vigilare, from vigil "watchful" (see vigil). Seemingly a word of the Terror in France.
surveillance sur·veil·lance (sər-vā'ləns)
Close observation of a person or group, especially one under suspicion.
The act of observing or the condition of being observed.
The collection, collation, analysis, and dissemination of data.
A type of observational study that involves continuous monitoring of disease occurrence within a population.