a pair of successive lines of verse, especially a pair that rhyme and are of the same length.
a pair; couple.
Music. any of the contrasting sections of a rondo occurring between statements of the refrain.

1570–80; < Middle French; see couple, -et Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
couplet (ˈkʌplɪt)
two successive lines of verse, usually rhymed and of the same metre
[C16: from French, literally: a little pair; see couple]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

1570s, in poetry, from Fr. couplet (mid-14c.), a dim. of couple (see couple). In music, from 1876.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary

couplet definition

A pair of lines of verse that rhyme. Some poems, such as “The Night Before Christmas,” are written entirely in couplets:

`Twas the night before Christmas, when all through the house
Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse;
The stockings were hung by the chimney with care
In hopes that St. Nicholas soon would be there.
The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
Before attacking the problem for quadruplets it seemed sensible to go back and
  look at couplets.
The songs of warbling-antbird pairs usually begin as evenly spaced series of
Your glib comment that biology does not yield ethical insights is trite:
  biology doesn't yield rhyming couplets either.
The two others are carelessly formed of seven riming couplets, and the lines
  are not of ten but of twelve or fourteen syllables.
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